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Using the example of the cycle of Goethe’s poems “The Chinese-German Book of Seasons and Hours”, in which the poet combines motifs from Chinese and German literature as well as his own poetry, the paper suggests a hypothesis in the light of which an attempt is made to consider the influence of Goethe’s natural-philosophical ideas on peculiarities of his concept of the world literature. In particular, this concerns the matter of integrating the individual (das Besondere) into the universal (das Allgemeine), a well as the concept of the Nature as a living whole. At the same time this universal law of Nature creates a mechanism for the functioning of the living stream of the world literature, where separate national literatures are circulating. “The Chinese-German Book of Seasons and Hours”, where the uniqueness of a single day and the constancy of the seasons are combined, where the memories of the past days are embedded in the imaginary space of China, creates “the space of semantic resonance”, with Goethe’s both aesthetic and natural-philosophical visions being are in the mutual reflection.
This paper deals with the issue of trophy films, transported by the Soviet Army to the USSR after the Second World War.
Throughout the 20th century, cinema has played, and, to some extent, continues to play a key role in shaping the social imagination and anthropology of modern human. Nevertheless, as a review of English scholarly literature shows, cinema, unlike art and music, remains a marginal subject of analysis for sociologists. The article attempts to consider the state of sociological reflection on cinema in the context of the cultural turn in sociology in both the international and national contexts. By reconstructing the history of the interaction between sociology, film studies, and cultural studies, the author not only proves the scarcity of interest among sociologists in the analysis of cinema, but also discusses the ways by which sociological perspectives were involved in film research at the turn of the 20th–21st centuries, and the potential of the latter for the study of social imagination. A survey of communities of Soviet sci-fi cinema fans demonstrates one possible way of developing of the sociologically oriented program of cinema studies.
The article demonstrates how the situation of social exclusion affects the strategies that migrants and their children experience vis-à-vis the preschooleducation system of the host society. We use the example of two private institutions established in Moscow by Kyrgyz migrants to explore their role in helping integrate migrant children into the host society. The article examines the role that the Kyrgyz community plays in the life of labor migrants in Moscow, and the reasons why private migrant infrastructure is created today by people from this particular country, even though eventually migrants from other countries use it as well. The author concludes that in recent years, migrants have been creating private infrastructure in Russia as an alternative to the public one. It replaces state institutions for migrants that are not accessible to them. Migrants also view it as one of the channels for entering the Russian society and state institutions. These centers not so much help migrants’ children to escape social isolation, as compensate for the lack of adjustment programs in Russian schools.
In avant-garde rhetoric, as appropriated by contemporary art, the ideas of social engagement and artistic achievement have been almost identical: after art’s selfsublation, its principal goal has supposedly been social engagement. Yet despite the internalization of the avant-garde’s socially oriented legacy, the true episteme and achievement of art since the 1960s has been conceptual surplus rather than social involvement. The negative antisocial character and vicious genealogy inherent to art since early modernist practices fostered various manipulations of this conceptual surplus, which eventually turned into the surplus value—the “metaphysical index”—of art’s economics, as Diedrich Diederichsen puts it. Regardless of whether this surplus is a cognitive gimmick, symbolic capital enhancing the cultural impact of an artwork, or a financialized abstraction simply increasing the cost of art, it has functioned as a hidden power of art in contemporaneity, and has been effectively disguised by art’s stated good will and emancipatory intentions. But what happens to art as an institution of contemporaneity if its codex of self-sublation and the logic of conceptual surplus are demolished by post-secular, post-conceptual cyber-fantasies?
The paper discusses the so-called «anti-Israel» campaign which the USSR started after the Six Day War between Israel and the Arab countries. The focus of the analysis is on the connection of this campaign and the general dynamics of the Cold War. The paper introduces the main lines of propaganda that sought to frame the Israeli victory and Israeli policies as those of an «imperialist» state.
The review of the book by I. Campbell "Knowledge and the Ends of Empire: Kazak Intermediaries and Russian Rule on the Steppe".
This article examines ethnic segregation at school level in Russia and the symbolic boundaries constructed around schools attended by children of migrants, as well as inside them. While Russian cities are notable for the very low degree of spatial segregation along ethnic lines, numerous studies demonstrate that in recent years local residents have come to perceive some institutions as ‘migrant schools’ as these have pupils of more diverse ethnic backgrounds. In particular, children of migrants and ‘local’ children create their own symbolic divides between ‘us’ and ‘them’ that reflects the degree of a pupil’s integration into the host society rather than her ethnic origins. When conflict situations break out between schoolchildren, the migrant stereotypes current in wider society are reproduced. On the school administration level, the main problem is a lack of adaptation programmes for children of migrants, as well as lessons in Russian as a second language.
Abstract. In this review the author discusses the questions raised during the
XXII Summer International School of Humanities (Moscow). The Summer School
program was focused on the subject of national literary classics in global transit: leading
world researchers and teachers attempted to problematize a given topic in various
aspects, both academic and methodical. Lectures, workshops, roundtables, discussions
allowed to discuss the problem of the formation and transformation of the national
literary canon, and the reflection of the literary classics in popular culture, as well as
its refraction in other, non-literary, media (theater, cinema), and, finally, features of
understanding the literary classics in modern artistic practice (first of all, in the modern
novel). The methodological part of the Summer School program was no less diverse:
the problems of teaching foreign literature at school (related to the clear predominance
of Russian literary works in the school course, often studied without following the
relationship with Western European literature) and the problems of studying foreign
literature at the university were offered for discussion. Particular attention was paid to
the discussion of the course of world literature as a project.
In the mid-2010s, rap suddenly (for many external observers) became one of the most important genres in Russian pop culture. Recordings of rap battles and videos of new rap songs receive millions of views on YouTube within a month or two. At the same time, Russian rap became more and more saturated with images of violence and rhetorics of success and personal domination; nevertheless, countercurrents such as, primarily, female rap and political satire rap, can also easily be discovered. This paper presents a social-theoretical interpretation of these transformations. The main argument is as follows: Russian society in the 2010s entered a state of covert anomie. The combination of increasing social stagnation and persistent openness to Western pop culture produced an unpredictable effect: the emergence of a “hybrid” subaltern in Russian society – a “mask” of a subaltern, involved in perseverating the reproduction of performances expressing revolt. However, this revolt is mocking and self-ironical and not intended to bring about any social change. This scenario of a “mock fight” charged with images of compensatory violence is the most popular type of narration in Russian rap, but it is not the only type: it is increasingly being “ousted” by politically charged rap, which presents the state as a main actor of violence and psychological pressure.
This paper is based on the fieldwork carried out in Moscow among Muslim migrants. The research is focused on the practices of ritual healing and expelling djinn in the context of migration and urban post-secular environment. I am interested in self-reflection and introspection of all the participants of the treatment – a mullah, his patients, their relatives, and even opponents to these Muslim practices. In this study, it is not my intention to delve too deeply into the analysis of what possession is or determine its causes, but rather to look at specific situations from my field work through the lens of modernity, morality, authority and precarity, in order to attempt to present the experience of possession and my informants’ struggle against it in all its richness and complexity.
This book, a philosophical consideration of Soviet socialism, is not meant simply to revisit the communist past; its aim, rather, is to witness certain zones where capitalism’s domination is resisted—the zones of countercapitalist critique, civil society agencies, and theoretical provisions of emancipation or progress—and to inquire to what extent those zones are in fact permeated by unconscious capitalism and thus unwittingly affirm the capitalist condition.
By means of the philosophical and politico-economical consideration of Soviet socialism of the 1960 and 1970s, this book manages to reveal the hidden desire for capitalism in contemporaneous anticapitalist discourse and theory. The research is marked by a broad cross-disciplinary approach based on political economy, philosophy, art theory, and cultural theory that redefines old Cold War and Slavic studies’ views of the post-Stalinist years, as well as challenges the interpretations of this period of historical socialism in Western Marxist thought.
Esta monografía, escrita por el colectivo de investigadores e investigadoras de Rusia y España, da a conocer al lector los problemas socio-económicos y políticos más actuales para ambos países. En la obra se examinan los orígenes de las crisis de los últimos tiempos que causaron grandes perjuicios a las economías rusa y española. Asimismo, se abordan los principales vectores del desarrollo nacional. Además, se analizan las cuestiones fundamentales de las relaciones ruso-hispanas en diferentes ámbitos de interacción interestatal.
Mayofis writes about Soviet children’s literature published during the period that followed Stalin’s death, tracing the multiple literary effects of a significant reinterpretation of the child protagonist and the child reader.
This article concerns the Islamic community in contemporary Russia and the dynamic identities of Muslim migrants there. The focus of this study is the religious and wider social practices of those Muslim migrants who are considered leaders of local micro-communities, enjoy respect within their religious community, and have steadfast religious authority within their circles. These practices are considered in their local religious and migrant contexts through the prism of such concepts as religious individualism, everyday lived Islam, and tactical religion. The author shows multiple ties that emerge between the region’s Muslims, specifically between unofficial local leaders, and other believers who need this authority to elaborate their everyday Muslim practices in the context of migration and the authority crisis in Russian Islam. This study emphasizes the importance of the everyday in the formation of individual religiosity and shows how a local Muslim environment builds up around certain key figures outside the mosque.
In recent years, ‘the Kyrgyz infrastructure’ began to develop in Moscow: ‘Kyrgyz clinics’, kindergartens, courses for preparing children for school, and real estate agencies made their appearance in the city. This infrastructure emerged as a result of the social exclusion of labor migrants in Russia. The Kyrgyz people have a special status in Russia as citizens of the EAEU. Despite this fact, they, like other migrants, face discrimination in the labor market and in accessing medical assistance. The article analyzes the emergence of the infrastructure created by migrants in Moscow and the reasons why the Kyrgyz community succeeded in this endeavor.
The main research issues of the article are the determination of the genesis of theology created in Supernatural and the understanding of ways in which this show transforms a traditional Christian theological narrative. The methodological framework of the article, on the one hand, is the theory of the occulture (C. Partridge), and on the other, the narrative theory proposed in U. Eco’s semiotic model. C. Partridge successfully described modern religious popular culture as a coexistence of abstract Eastern good (the idea of the transcendent Absolute, self-spirituality) and Western personified evil. The ideal confirmation of this thesis is Supernatural, since it was the bricolage game with images of Christian evil that became the cornerstone of its popularity. In the 15 seasons of its existence, Supernatural, conceived as a story of two evil-hunting brothers wrapped in a collection of urban legends, has turned into a global panorama of world demonology while touching on the nature of evil, the world order, theodicy, the image of God, etc. In fact, this show creates a new demonology, angelology, and eschatology. The article states that the narrative topics of Supernatural are based on two themes, i.e., the theology of the spiritual war of the third wave of charismatic Protestantism and the occult outlooks derived from Emmanuel Swedenborg’s system. The main topic of this article is the role of monotheistic mythology in Supernatural. The author concludes that the case of Supernatural shows how the classical monotheistic narrative, in its orthodox and heterodox formats, is hugely attractive for the modern audience. A wide distribution of the occulture that has become a basis of modern mass culture and easily combines, by virtue of historical specifics of its genesis, with monotheism makes the classical monotheistic mythology more flexible and capable of meeting the audience’s different demands.
Present theories of computation and artificial intelligence often claim that philosophy should either discard its principal modes of gnoseology (its theories of knowledge and cognition) and anthropomorphic genesis, or declare philosophic speculation obsolete altogether, since it fails to provide any precise knowledge regarding the most significant contemporary scientific and technological concerns. If post-structuralism doubted the power of philosophy because of its proximity to the sciences and their own discrete discourses, contemporary ‘post-philosophies’, on the contrary, refuse philosophy because of its insufficient knowledge of science and technology.
Two principal contemporary post-philosophic tendencies stand out in this regard. The first is found in cognitivist theories, which posit philosophy as an obsolete cognitive practice, a quasi-mythological narrative that produces fictitious non-scientific notions such as transcendentality, metaphysics, idea, dialectics, the universal or truth.
Another tendency is more subtle and interesting. It posits algorithimic creativity itself as a philosophical procedure. Reclaiming philosophical thought, it confines it mainly to the body of computation. Here, in the works of Luciana Parisi and Reza Negarestani, among others, we come across a series of elaborate standpoints for reconstituting the tasks of philosophy after and due to computation.
In the present article I consider the premises of thought grounded in computation theory (Negarestani, Parisi) in order to show how in a similar situation - when, in the Soviet 1960s, cybernetic studies were claimed as the new philosophical discipline - a communist thought, exemplified here by the writings of Evald Ilyenkov, developed its own militant postulates of what reason is, and why its algorithmic emulation would be impossible.
The article considers the potential of a strong program of cultural sociology in the research of the Soviet song policy in the 1960s and 70s. Mass musical genres of the cultural industry era are usually considered in the historicist optics of emancipation and diversification. With such optics, institutional contexts serve only as a background against which the evolution of the post-folklore unfolds. The disadvantage of this approach is the uncritical mixing of the tools of classicist criticism with modern tools of social theory. The Soviet song Estrada formed its own type of song statements by simultaneously rebuilding the institutions of social performance, musical political economy, and aesthesis that served these institutions. Non-reductionist optics, which, from Alexander’s point of view lie at the intersection of structuralist and hermeneutical tools, have a pronounced specificity when applied to mass musical genres. The system of intonation combined with the poetic word brought to a state of pure mechanical self-reproduction, according to Adorno, somehow pushes us to describe and decipher the system of meanings of such a product. In order that the search for thickness in the description of musical phenomena does not lead to new reductions, it is necessary to abandon what, at first glance, connects sound with culture, and replace the concepts of ‘song’ and ‘music’ with ‘song statement’ and ‘musical statement’. Using the concepts of ‘nobility’, ‘authenticity’, and ‘depth’ that occupied post-war song discourses, we demonstrate the mechanisms of their circulation within the institute of Estrada in connection with the topoi of song statement that induce social imagination. To do this, we add the attitude for a thick description, in which the cultural meanings supplied by song statements appear in close connection with the Soviet social imagination, to the usual pattern of analysis of the adornian sociology of smash hits and chamber music forms.
This paper is devoted to the issue of so–called ‘trophy films’ in the context of Soviet foreign policy. The aim of this research is to reveal how the cultural competition between the USSR and the USA during the early Cold War caused the emergence of the famous credit title «This film was captured as a trophy after the Soviet Army defeated Nazi troops near Berlin in 1945», and, as a consequence, resulted in the establishing of ‘Trophy Film’ concept in public discourse.