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The article demonstrates how the situation of social exclusion affects the strategies that migrants and their children experience vis-à-vis the preschooleducation system of the host society. We use the example of two private institutions established in Moscow by Kyrgyz migrants to explore their role in helping integrate migrant children into the host society. The article examines the role that the Kyrgyz community plays in the life of labor migrants in Moscow, and the reasons why private migrant infrastructure is created today by people from this particular country, even though eventually migrants from other countries use it as well. The author concludes that in recent years, migrants have been creating private infrastructure in Russia as an alternative to the public one. It replaces state institutions for migrants that are not accessible to them. Migrants also view it as one of the channels for entering the Russian society and state institutions. These centers not so much help migrants’ children to escape social isolation, as compensate for the lack of adjustment programs in Russian schools.
The review of the book by I. Campbell "Knowledge and the Ends of Empire: Kazak Intermediaries and Russian Rule on the Steppe".
This article examines ethnic segregation at school level in Russia and the symbolic boundaries constructed around schools attended by children of migrants, as well as inside them. While Russian cities are notable for the very low degree of spatial segregation along ethnic lines, numerous studies demonstrate that in recent years local residents have come to perceive some institutions as ‘migrant schools’ as these have pupils of more diverse ethnic backgrounds. In particular, children of migrants and ‘local’ children create their own symbolic divides between ‘us’ and ‘them’ that reflects the degree of a pupil’s integration into the host society rather than her ethnic origins. When conflict situations break out between schoolchildren, the migrant stereotypes current in wider society are reproduced. On the school administration level, the main problem is a lack of adaptation programmes for children of migrants, as well as lessons in Russian as a second language.
Abstract. In this review the author discusses the questions raised during the
XXII Summer International School of Humanities (Moscow). The Summer School
program was focused on the subject of national literary classics in global transit: leading
world researchers and teachers attempted to problematize a given topic in various
aspects, both academic and methodical. Lectures, workshops, roundtables, discussions
allowed to discuss the problem of the formation and transformation of the national
literary canon, and the reflection of the literary classics in popular culture, as well as
its refraction in other, non-literary, media (theater, cinema), and, finally, features of
understanding the literary classics in modern artistic practice (first of all, in the modern
novel). The methodological part of the Summer School program was no less diverse:
the problems of teaching foreign literature at school (related to the clear predominance
of Russian literary works in the school course, often studied without following the
relationship with Western European literature) and the problems of studying foreign
literature at the university were offered for discussion. Particular attention was paid to
the discussion of the course of world literature as a project.
This paper is based on the fieldwork carried out in Moscow among Muslim migrants. The research is focused on the practices of ritual healing and expelling djinn in the context of migration and urban post-secular environment. I am interested in self-reflection and introspection of all the participants of the treatment – a mullah, his patients, their relatives, and even opponents to these Muslim practices. In this study, it is not my intention to delve too deeply into the analysis of what possession is or determine its causes, but rather to look at specific situations from my field work through the lens of modernity, morality, authority and precarity, in order to attempt to present the experience of possession and my informants’ struggle against it in all its richness and complexity.
This article concerns the Islamic community in contemporary Russia and the dynamic identities of Muslim migrants there. The focus of this study is the religious and wider social practices of those Muslim migrants who are considered leaders of local micro-communities, enjoy respect within their religious community, and have steadfast religious authority within their circles. These practices are considered in their local religious and migrant contexts through the prism of such concepts as religious individualism, everyday lived Islam, and tactical religion. The author shows multiple ties that emerge between the region’s Muslims, specifically between unofficial local leaders, and other believers who need this authority to elaborate their everyday Muslim practices in the context of migration and the authority crisis in Russian Islam. This study emphasizes the importance of the everyday in the formation of individual religiosity and shows how a local Muslim environment builds up around certain key figures outside the mosque.
In recent years, ‘the Kyrgyz infrastructure’ began to develop in Moscow: ‘Kyrgyz clinics’, kindergartens, courses for preparing children for school, and real estate agencies made their appearance in the city. This infrastructure emerged as a result of the social exclusion of labor migrants in Russia. The Kyrgyz people have a special status in Russia as citizens of the EAEU. Despite this fact, they, like other migrants, face discrimination in the labor market and in accessing medical assistance. The article analyzes the emergence of the infrastructure created by migrants in Moscow and the reasons why the Kyrgyz community succeeded in this endeavor.
Present theories of computation and artificial intelligence often claim that philosophy should either discard its principal modes of gnoseology (its theories of knowledge and cognition) and anthropomorphic genesis, or declare philosophic speculation obsolete altogether, since it fails to provide any precise knowledge regarding the most significant contemporary scientific and technological concerns. If post-structuralism doubted the power of philosophy because of its proximity to the sciences and their own discrete discourses, contemporary ‘post-philosophies’, on the contrary, refuse philosophy because of its insufficient knowledge of science and technology.
Two principal contemporary post-philosophic tendencies stand out in this regard. The first is found in cognitivist theories, which posit philosophy as an obsolete cognitive practice, a quasi-mythological narrative that produces fictitious non-scientific notions such as transcendentality, metaphysics, idea, dialectics, the universal or truth.
Another tendency is more subtle and interesting. It posits algorithimic creativity itself as a philosophical procedure. Reclaiming philosophical thought, it confines it mainly to the body of computation. Here, in the works of Luciana Parisi and Reza Negarestani, among others, we come across a series of elaborate standpoints for reconstituting the tasks of philosophy after and due to computation.
In the present article I consider the premises of thought grounded in computation theory (Negarestani, Parisi) in order to show how in a similar situation - when, in the Soviet 1960s, cybernetic studies were claimed as the new philosophical discipline - a communist thought, exemplified here by the writings of Evald Ilyenkov, developed its own militant postulates of what reason is, and why its algorithmic emulation would be impossible.
This paper is devoted to the issue of so–called ‘trophy films’ in the context of Soviet foreign policy. The aim of this research is to reveal how the cultural competition between the USSR and the USA during the early Cold War caused the emergence of the famous credit title «This film was captured as a trophy after the Soviet Army defeated Nazi troops near Berlin in 1945», and, as a consequence, resulted in the establishing of ‘Trophy Film’ concept in public discourse.
This article is devoted to the retrospective perception of the phenomenon of “trophy films” in the USSR and post-Soviet Russia. Based upon an analysis of memoirs, fiction, non-fiction, articles in the press, this research aims to answer the question of why there was such an intense interest in the phenomenon of trophy films from the 1980s through the 2000s. The structure of the text follows two main directions, based upon remembrances about two key trophy films: Tarzan and The Woman of My Dreams. As a result, the research analyzes the discourse and interpretations brought to the cultural landscape of the 1980s through the 2000s.
The review article provides a critical analysis of the main points of Francis Fukuyama’s latest book, which deals with the identity crisis of Western liberal democracy. The author focuses on Fukuyama’s assessment of actual global developments from the perspective of struggle of nations and groups for recognition. Special attention is given to the role that a broadly understood national identity could play in stabilizing social and political processes of the modern world.
The heterogeneity of the cybernetics movement, its blurred boundaries, its deep penetration into the scientific, cultural, political and religious institutions of different national communities — all these provide an opening for broadly different approaches to describing the cybernetics movement. Cybernetics was equally attractive to irreconcilable opponents — atheists and clerics, scientists and mystics, Communists and Liberals, cultural figures and counterculture activists. Any study, social or intellectual, of such heterogeneous movements requires simplification of that complexity. e main goal of the article is to find a basic unity that runs through the cultural, social, doctrinal, and institutional diversity of the cybernetics movement. e unifying feature had to meet three requirements: first, the starting point of the analysis should be the original problem that cybernetics addresses throughout its history to date; second, this problem must have a certain degree of universality, that is, its significance must be more than theoretical or applied so that it somehow resonates with philosophy, psychology, and with cultural, political or ideological forms of thought; third, the problem must be relevant in the context of current polemics.
The distinction between analog and digital proved to be a convenient conceptual tool for drawing a sharp outline around cybernetics. e article does not attempt to provide a coherent treatment of its history but instead consists of several fragmentary ideas that are relevant to the history of cybernetics. It is also an experiment to show the potential of that approach. e main thesis presented is that an under- standing of the history of the cybernetics movement can be systematic and productive when based on the analysis of the key cybernetic distinction between analog and digital. This approach reveals important shared problematics and genetic kinship in seemingly incompatible doctrines that make use of cybernetics (Wiener, Shannon) and post-structuralism (Foucault, Derrida, Lacan, Deleuze).
The main concern of the article is the ways plague was explored and conceptualised by Russian doctors in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Medical theories and epistemologies are accessed in comparison with those employed during the pre-bacteriological era as well as with the European medical ideas of the period.
The paper highlights the context and the main points of the speech given by Max Weber at the International Congress of Arts and Science in St. Louis in September, 1904. It analyzes Weber’s views on the dynamics of social change as presented by the German classic in the shape of the comparative historical sociology of the European and American versions of modernity. The first part of the article covers the background and the most significant episodes of the trip to the United States undertaken by Max Weber and his wife Marianne. The second part of the article elucidates the main points of Weber’s speech in St. Louis. The third part examines the observations and conclusions of the specifics of American modernity made by Weber through his direct acquaintance with life in the United States. In conclusion, the paper proposes a brief analysis of Weber’s contribution to the development of historical sociology’s ideas about the nature and pathways of Western modernity.
Review of Schlieter J. What Is It Like To Be Dead?: Near-Death Experiences, Christianity, and the Occult. New York: Oxford University Press, 2018.
Foreword to the publication of Dr. John Dee's privat diaries.
The article discusses the emergence of “migrant” schools in post-Soviet cities. On the basis of extensive fieldwork in the schools of the Moscow regions and Tomsk, the author shows that children of labor migrants usually attend schools that in the Soviet period were oriented toward teaching children from low-status families. As a rule, these schools are located in residential districts which were seen as working class in the Soviet era and had an unofficial “marginal” status in the city. In post-Soviet times, these schools began to enroll children with disabilities and those from socially disadvantaged families not only from the district, but also from the city at large. According to research, it is these schools, which have retained since Soviet times the status and reputation of catering to children from low-status families, that host migrant children today. Such schools are attended not only by children from their immediate neighborhood, but also from other districts in the city, as other educational institutions often refuse to enroll migrant children. The emergence of these “migrant” schools results from informal strategies of school administrations, as well as of parents, both “local” and migrant.