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Russia’s ambitions under Emperor Alexander I to establish a new political order in Europe in 1813–1815 have been widely discussed by historians. Assessments of this new order itself, as it was finally implemented in the wake of the Congress of Vienna, vary markedly, but it is generally believed that the post-war system was the fruit of interactions between several participants who represented Europe’s old regimes in an age of revolution. The Holy Alliance as a vision of international order is often presented to be diametrically opposed to the more radical, republican imagining of global order such as that associated with Immanuel Kant’s Perpetual Peace. This chapter shakes up this view by analysing the importance of Kant’s ideas in the intellectual formation of one of the most influential Russian imperial political thinkers of this period, Sergey Uvarov. The degree of indebtedness to Kant’s work in his vision of international order, though it ultimately conflicts with the spirit of Kant’s work, was strongest in the period of Franco–Russian conflict.
The article discusses the dramatic history of the Tsaritsyno Park and museum-reserve. By the mid-2000s it had become one of Moscow’s iconic places and a zone where urban public culture was shaped. The authors trace the history of this architectural ensemble and park in terms of their role in сity culture and analyse changes in the historical culture of contemporary post-Soviet Moscow. The Tsaritsyno Park and museum exemplify these changes. An unfinished country residence of Catherine II, with a Grand Palace that had stood as a ruin for over 200 years, it has been radically renewed by the Moscow city authorities in what came to be labelled ‘fantasy restoration.’ The palace was finished and now serves as the core of the museum, organised according to a controversial historical policy. Tsaritsyno as a whole became a cultural oddity featuring historical attractions for the public, effectively an ‘eighteenth-century theme park’.
Cultural policy has not generally been viewed as central to the activities and instruments of the modern Russian state. As such, Moscow’s sudden interest, a few years ago, in culture was perceived ambivalently by many commentators. In April 2013, Vladimir Putin signed the Order “On Holding the Year of Culture in the Russian Federation”. The Year of Culture took place in 2014.
In the 1970s and 80s, Soviet sociology published a great deal about women's empowerment in the USSR. Researchers emphasized two sides of this phenomenon: on one hand the achievements of the state in equalizing the rights of women with those of men, along with the high levels of women's employment and participation in public life, and on the other hand the ensuing "double burden," resulting from the need to combine a career with the "traditional" duties of a spouse, mother and housewife
The study explores the so-called ‘Kyrgyz clinics’ and their place in the migrant infrastructure of Moscow, Russia. We focus on the unique status of these clinics specifically aimed at and tailored for the migrants’ medical and psychosocial needs. We have found that the role of Kyrgyz clinics is not limited to the provision of affordable medical services. It is a milieu where the migrant patients come with their problems to migrant doctors, and where they can use their native language and cultural code to talk about their health problems. In particular, Kyrgyz doctors at such clinics play the role of intermediaries between migrants and other medical institutions of Moscow, as migrants often lack information about budget healthcare services in Moscow. We also briefly outline how migrants use informal strategies and networks to overcome the barriers to receiving medical care.
The main goal of the article is to outline the notion of the materiality analysis, missing in hermeneutical image theory of Hans-Georg Gadamer. The necessity of such an analysis springs from Gadamer’s thesis that image is not just an artifact representing reality but a most authentic mode of appearance of reality itself allowing us to experience it as a meaningful whole. As a result, such a transformative power of the image raises a question about status and functions of materiality within pictorial experience. In the article is outlined and defended the notion of iconic materiality, i.e. of dynamics and manifold functions of material structures in the perception of pictures and images.
Sexuality is not possible without phantasm, phantasm is not possible without the imaginaries maintained by private property. Private property resides in surplus economy.
Surplus economy is libidinal. The question would then be: how much could sexuality cost? Or does sexuality vanish if the economy stops to be libidinal?
This paper discusses the reinvention of the humanist ideas and values in the Soviet post-World War II and post-Stalinist culture (the 1950s and the1960s) with the help of Renaissance plots and images in Soviet semi-official art, the main examples being Pavel Antokolsky’s poem Hieronymus Bosch (1957), the Strugatsky brothers’ novel Hard to Be a God (1963), and Grigory Kozintsev’s films based on Shakespeare’s Hamlet (1964) and King Lear (1970), as well as David Samoilov’s poem Bertold Schwarz: A Monologue, set in the late Middle Ages. The paper isolates an aesthetic movement that developed in the Soviet culture of those decades; I propose to call this movement “posttraumatic humanism.” It was based on the new aesthetic idiom of “gloomy Renaissance,” including images of conflagration, ruins, violence. The works of this movement did not use the Aesopian language — or, at least, did not use it as a primary or only tool. Rather, it involves a covert comparison of the Soviet present with the European pre-Enlightenment past and aesthetical valorization and sublimation of 20th-century catastrophic experience. Images of “gloomy Renaissance” conveyed the erosion the Soviet belief in progress and moral modernization as inevitable consequences of Bolsheviks’ revolution. One of the earliest mature works of posttraumatic humanism in Soviet culture was Vasily Grossman’s essay The Sistine Madonna (1955). Alexei German Sr.’s film Hard to Be a God (2013) can be regarded as the concluding and summarizing work in this movement.
The article suggests a hypothesis in the light of which an attempt is made to consider the novel of F. M. Klinger Faust’s Leben, Thaten und Hoellen- fahrt (1791) as a representation of power relations in Russia under Catherine II. This novel illustrates the ideological position of Klinger, who for many years has observed with his own eyes cultural and political situation in Russia in the late 18th century, when Catherine II was praised as an enlightened reformer. However, the enlightened ideology of Catherine II was often a despotic autocracy in social life and “enslavement” in everyday life. To represent the space of ideological confrontation, Klinger used the “devilish” perspective from the Faust legend as a satirical technique. The fictive place of publication (“Petersburg”) on the front page of the Faust-novel initiates a chain of associations: “enlightened” Russia appears before the enlightened readers as an illusion, a “leviathanischer Schein” (a word, frequently used in the novel), an invention of European philosophers and travelers. Klinger combines religious and philosophical connotations of the figure of Leviathan, who acquires the features of Gregory Potemkin. Leviathan becomes therefore a symbol of the power relations under Catherine II and a satirical representation of the ideological “monstrosity” of the Russian Enlightenment.
This article explores the impact of social and spatial structure of Moscow on the patterns of settlement of labour migrants. It emphasizes the ways in which the structure of post-Soviet urban environment differs from the European and U.S. ones, and uses interviews with guest workers from Central Asia to map out the barriers encountered today by migrants looking for housing, as well as the strategies they employ in their search for accommodation in Moscow. Special attention is paid to the role played by ethnic networks in the lives of migrant workers, and the ways in which these networks are configured by the urban space. The article demonstrates how the absence of spatial segregation in the post-Soviet city, inherited from the Soviet period, affects the trajectories of social and economic integration of migrants and explains the absence of ‘ethnic areas’ in today’s Moscow.
Interview with Podoroga on the history and stage of the Soviet Marxism
The author conducts a comparative analysis of the Russian Revolution developed by two prominent social-political thinkers of Germany and Russia in the early twentieth century—Max Weber and Peter Struve. The article focuses on their respective interpretations of the causes, course, and consequences of the Revolution as determined by their political ideals, i.e. a speciﬁc combination of nationalism and liberalism. The author pays special attention to Weber’s and Struve’s perception of the Russian Revolution, which, albeit for different reasons, was rejected by both thinkers.
The paper is focused on the possibility of introduction of «post-photography» (identified often as digital photography) as visual images of a new type that testify appearance, development, and functioning of network communities. It is supposed that postphotography understood as a set of special communicating processes becomes a new perspective for social (cultural) anthropology which aims at studying the new type of social connectedness.
In his “Difference and Repetition” Deleuze reveals an aporia: repetition is singular, solitary, it is torn away from any original or source; nevertheless it preserves a genetic tie with certain event to which it is a repetition. This solitariness of the repetition is not however confined to mere difference between the act of repetition and the repeated source that cancels the original just to differentiate two performative procedures. An act of repetition is solitary only when it evolves in specific time-regime, which even ontically diverges from the regular ontology of time. Deleuze calls such temporality “empty”, Nietzsche defines it as amor fati, Heidegger sees in it convergence of eternity and an instant. The stake in this case is a specific kind of repetitive regime which unfolds as the performative syndrome of ‘dying’ – a “repetition into death” (Deleuze) which paradoxically executes itself as performative plenitude. But who is the Subject undergoing such a syndrome and what should have happened to her/him so as to impose the regime of dying on any act of repetition?
This is the feature review article, focused on the new books on representation of the Holocaust (the Shoa), published in Israel, France, and the USA in 2013-2014. It is supposed that the new academic paradigm is emerging now, caused by inclusion of the Eastern European literature (fiction, poetry, essays) on Holocaust into the context of Western Holocaust literature. The methods of research and interpretation of post-traumatic literary works are also discussed; one of the most difficult issues here is contextualization of such works within diverse cultural and literary movements of a period.
"Shakespeare est toujours vivant": objectifs et mécanismes de la formation du culte de la littérature "classique" en URSS dans les années 1930